Location                       : Beijing ,china
Architect                      : Herzog & de Meuron Architekten AG
Year of construction    : 2002-2008
Building type               : National sports venue
Cost of construction    : 3.5 Billion yuan (~423 million USD)
Total area                     : 250,000 sq.m.
Total weight                 : 45,000 tonnes
Material used               : Concrete steel and ethyl tetrofluoroethylene (ETFE ) panel roofing



Drawing from  the structural strength and beauty of natural objects is a growing trend as architects and designers today have become increasingly interested  in the efficient use of energy and materials. Beijing national stadium , designed  by Swiss architects Herzog and de meuron, is an excellent example of the use of these bio-metric principles in modern architecture. As implied its nickname a "birds nest", the stadium rises out of the landscape in the shape of a giant upturned bird’s nest. The seemingly random pattern of the steel structural members as the twigs is actually governed by advanced geometrical rules to ensure a compact and optimum design, the seating bowl was established first, with the outer facade wrapping around it. The design ensures that all spectators are as close as possible to the action and have a clear sight lines.



The exterior shell –inflated cushions as a filler
Just as a birds stuff the spaces between the woven twigs of their nests with a soft filler, the spaces in the structure of the stadium are filled with inflated ETFE cushions. On the roof, the cushions will be mounted  on the outside of the structure to make the roof completely weatherproof. Whilst the rain is collected for rainwater recuperation the sunlight filters through the translucent roof providing the lawn with essential UV–Radiation. On the facade, the inflated cushions will be mounted on the inside of the structure where necessary, e.g. to provide wind protection. Since all of the facilities – restaurants,suites, enclosed facade. This allows natural ventilation of the stadium which is the most important aspect of the stadium’s sustainable design. 


Sight lines and spectator Viewing: The almost circular footprint optimizes the viewing and atmosphere by bringing all the  spectators as close to the action as possible.  
The stands are designed without any interruption to evoke the image of bowl. This evenly constructed shape serves to focus attention on the spectators and the events on the field. The human crowd forms the architecture. The facility provides good comfort, excellent views and a superb atmosphere. It will generate crowd excitement and drive athletes to outstanding performances.



Since the entire structure is constructed of steel and concrete with a combined weight of around 50,000 tonnes. Hence, computer simulation,synchronized control and structure monitoring techniques were all used to ensure accurate operation,even unloading and timely observations. All these provided for a structure that mutually supported each other and converged into a grid –like formation-almost like a bird's nest with its interwoven twigs. To form a structure largely dominated by large spans and digital screens.


Due to the fact that Beijing is located in an earthquake zone, it was imperative to be able to withstand the earth’s movement. By building the stadium in two separate parts, including a steel lattice structure and a concrete bowl separated by 50ft, the designers were able to create a structure flexible enough to handle considerable seismic activity. The bird’s nest is prepared to withstand an earthquake of up to magnitude 8 on the Richter scale.


In 2002, the Beijing Municipal Planning Commission held an international competition for the design of the main stadium for the 29th Olympic Games. As the building is intended to house the opening and closing ceremonies, as well as the track and field events, the original competition program included the following main criteria (Beijing, 2002):
A stadium capacity of approximately 100,000 people during the games (to be reduced to approximately 80,000 afterwards), • A retractable roof, • A multi-functional design, to efficiently incorporate a range of uses in the future; and • An emphasis on green building and advanced technology.
After passing through two rounds of adjudication, Herzog and de Meuron’s proposal emerged as the winning entry.
The stadium consists of an inner bowl of concrete seating surrounded by a façade of twisted steel, with a public concourse area sandwiched between the two. The elliptical building footprint is dictated by “the constraints of seating 100,000 people around an athletics track and field”.
Meanwhile, the variation in the height of the stands between the major and minor axes of the ellipse allows for the majority of spectators to be seated along the longest length of the track, and “ensures that all spectators are within the same radius of view from the corners of the field”.
The circular shape of the stadium represents heaven, but has been described as a bird's nest, with its pattern inspired by Chinese-style crazed pottery. A series of cantilevered trusses has been designed to support the roof, shading the seats. While designing the stadium, architects and engineers also ensured comfortable seats and optimum view for all spectators.
In all, the structure encloses a volume approximately 333 meters long by 284 meters wide and 69 meters tall.
                            BIO-MIMICRY AT BEHAVIOR LEVEL

architecture is not just about designing and planning its all about admiring art and implementing it in the real world

In India, a new hill resort and a bio-mimetic city named Lavasa has been constructed by HCC Group with the help of an architectural firm, HOK. Spread across 12,000 acres in a Western Ghats valley located outside Pune, the new city has been designed using Bio-mimetic technology. The idea was to restore 70% of the deforested land through detailed landscaping, reforestation and slope greening, reduce 30% of carbon emissions, 65% of potable water consumption, and 95% of waste sent to landfills. The site’s original ecosystem was a moist deciduous forest, which was converted into an arid landscape in recent times.

Working closely with biologists from Bio-mimicry 3.8, HOK has built a bio-mimetic city at Lavasa. The city’s rooftops are inspired by the morphology of the native banyan fig leaf, whose pointed spear shape at the end that hastens the water run-off and cleans its surface in the process. It has led to the development of tiled shingle rooftops that shed water in the same way. Since the Western Ghats region is prone to seasonal flooding from monsoons and a strategy based on ant nest has been adopted to channel water through the city. This efficient plan is inspired from the local harvester ants that divert water away from their nests through multi-path, low-grade channels. Further, water has been stored in networked building foundations, much like tree roots.

The basic concept of Lavasa master plan was based on the principles of new urbanism. It configured the land use  distribution in such a way that the concepts like “Walk to Work”, “Walk to School” and “Walk to Park”  becomes reality. The town centre is the hub of all work places, education, leisure and socio-cultural activities.  Care has been taken that maximum permanent residents stay within walking distance of their workplaces. In July  2009, Lavasa management took a decision to strengthen “Walk to Work” by building pedestrian walkways in  Dasve town in Lavasa.

The walkways were categorized into formal and informal walks keeping in mind the slopes, amount of people  and frequency of usage. Finally the well executed, safe and robust walkways were constructed and will provide  quick and safe access between workplaces and homes in Dasve.

Lavasa, India, a hill city prone to monsoons, droughts, and threats of erosion, has been modeled after the ecosystem of the dense forest around it. “The design team started to ask, ‘Well how come the local ecosystem can deal with this monsoon without losing all of it soil?’” says Rovalo, whose firm worked with the design company HOK to build a community there.

So they started to study the ecosystem, and considered how rainwater-storage systems could be designed to mimic trees that take in water during the rainy season and store it for later. They also looked at designs that would help slow down the speed of rainfall—much like what leaves do in a forest.

“One of the issues in the built environment is that when the site is cleared, you're removing a lot of that vertical structure, so the first surface that [rain] hits is at maximum velocity,” she says. “The ecosystem is structured with the shrub layer, the mid-level tree layer, the canopy layer, and all those layers slow down the rain drop so that, by the time it actually hits the soil, it's very soft and absorbed very quickly.”

  • Location              :  New Delhi
  • Total Site area    :  24 acres
  • Climate               :  Tropical with great variations in temperature
  • Building Type    :  Worship Place
  • Architect            :  Fariburz Sabha
  • Project year       :  1979-1986
  • Cost of Project  :  Rs 10 000 000


Observing Hindu architecture, you can see that despite the external difference between the various temples, they all show meaningful and sacred symbols common to all of India’s religions. These are symbols which have emerged in other countries and religions. One of these symbols is the sacred flower of the Indians: the lotus flower.Fariborz Sahba developed the project for the temple inspired conceptually by this flower which symbolises purity and cleanliness in Hindu tradition. 


  • Generation of form
  • Engineering Challenge
  • Climatic Challenge
  • Baha'i Faith
  • Financial restriction


  • This concept had to be converted into defined geometric forms, such as spheres, cylinders, toroids and cones, which were translated into equations and later used as a base for the structural analysis and engineering plans. The resulting geometry was so complex that the plans for the temple took two and a half years to complete.
  • The design is composed of 27 free-standing marble- clad "petals" arranged in clusters of three to form nine sides. 
  • These 3 petals each with a pond, have been repeated symmetrically at regular intervals creating a rhythmic pattern. 
  • The temple is surrounded by nine large pools of water that not only enhance its beauty but also play a role in the natural cooling system of the hall. 
  • •All elements are in multiples of “9” as it is said to symbolize comprehensiveness, oneness and unity.
  • Rhythmic patterns provide continuity and lead us to anticipate what comes next.
  • In plan its form is composition of circles and circular segments .


Radial symmetry refers to the balanced arrangement of similar, radiating elements such that the composition can be divided into similar halves by passing a plane at any angle around a center point or along a central axis.


  • From the main node the structure looks 
  • monumental 
  • The entry gates in the main hall are in human scale with almost 4 meters of height 
  • Once you enter the main prayer hall, the sense of monumental continues with the hall almost 40 m. High. 
  • The hall can seat almost 1200 people at a time.

  • The basement and the interior podium were first built. From there, to raise the arches and shells, the structure was divided in parts, bearing in mind that when the form-work was removed, the constructed part would support itself until the next part was complete. The structure was divided in the following way:
  • Almost the entire structural load of the temple’s interior space is supported by nine arches which spread out around the central hall, located at angular intervals of 40°. The forms of these arches are created by flat, conical and cylindrical surfaces. The intersection of these surfaces presents interesting contours and considerably improves the beauty of the arches.

    Need for Passive Cooling Techniques:

  • The climate in Delhi is very hot for several months of the year, and the degree of humidity varies,
  • It seemed as though the only solution for the ventilation problem would be air-conditioning
  • But it requires involves large amount of energy to maintain it . For a temple in India it is not favorable

    Cooling method adopted:

  • Building as a chimney
  • The central hall of the temple is designed to function as a chimney, with openings at top and bottom (stack affect) This ensures a constant drought of cool air to pass over the pools in basement and hall
  • Cool air (heavy) is drawn from the bottom openings and hot air (light) is emitted out from the top
  • This process is reversed in humid days
  • The natural slope of land is used in creation of certain large basement at the level of pools . The floor of auditorium is lowered by five steps so that they act as lovers for cool air entering
  • Two sets of exhaust fans complement this system .
  • The first of dome cools the concrete shell and prevents transference of heat
  • The second set funnels air from the auditorium to the cold basement for cooling and recycles it back.

    Light in interiors

  • The whole superstructure is designed to function as a skylight.
  • The interior dome is spherical and patterned after the innermost portion of the lotus flower. Light enters the hall in the same way as it passes through the inner folds of the lotus petals.
  • The central bud is held by nine open petals, each of which functions as a skylight.
  • The interior dome, therefore, is like a bud consisting of 27 petals, and light filters through these inner folds and is diffused throughout the hall.




  1.        inspired by the work of a tiny insect, the termite.
  2.   The termite is one of nature's more accomplished builders, erecting the tallest structures on our planet (when measured against the size of the builder), and maintaining a constant temperature inside despite wide temperature swings outside.
  3.          The mounds that they build are extremely durable structures of mud, often employing sophisticated buttressing and, in the case of so-called compass mounds, a precise shape and siting that optimize the effects of the sun.
  4.          The complex is actually two buildings that shelter an interior atrium (right). Heat gain is reduced by limited glazing, deep overhangs, and building mass, and the architect took advantage of night cooling, thermal storage and convective air currents to moderate temperatures.
  5.         During the day the heavy building mass and rock storage in the basement absorb the heat of the environment and human activity. At night, cool air is allowed into the bottom of the building and starts the convective flow that vents the hot daytime air through roof vents. This cool air is also stored and then distributed the next day into offices via hollow floors and baseboard vents.