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Tuesday, 16 April 2019

BEIJING NATIONAL STADIUM AND ITS BIO-MIMETIC HISTORY

NIGHT VIEW OF THE STADIUM
ABOUT THE PROJECT :

Location                       : Beijing ,china
Architect                      : Herzog & de Meuron Architekten AG
Year of construction    : 2002-2008
Building type               : National sports venue
Cost of construction    : 3.5 Billion yuan (~423 million USD)
Total area                     : 250,000 sq.m.
Total weight                 : 45,000 tonnes
Material used               : Concrete steel and ethyl tetrofluoroethylene (ETFE ) panel roofing

FRONT VIEW OF THE STADIUM

AERIAL VIEW OF THE STADIUM

INSPIRATION : BIRD'S NEST :
Drawing from  the structural strength and beauty of natural objects is a growing trend as architects and designers today have become increasingly interested  in the efficient use of energy and materials. Beijing national stadium , designed  by Swiss architects Herzog and de meuron, is an excellent example of the use of these bio-metric principles in modern architecture. As implied its nickname a "birds nest", the stadium rises out of the landscape in the shape of a giant upturned bird’s nest. The seemingly random pattern of the steel structural members as the twigs is actually governed by advanced geometrical rules to ensure a compact and optimum design, the seating bowl was established first, with the outer facade wrapping around it. The design ensures that all spectators are as close as possible to the action and have a clear sight lines.


DESIGN CHALLENGES :

1. TO PROVIDE THERMAL COMFORT IN THE STADIUM

The exterior shell –inflated cushions as a filler
Just as a birds stuff the spaces between the woven twigs of their nests with a soft filler, the spaces in the structure of the stadium are filled with inflated ETFE cushions. On the roof, the cushions will be mounted  on the outside of the structure to make the roof completely weatherproof. Whilst the rain is collected for rainwater recuperation the sunlight filters through the translucent roof providing the lawn with essential UV–Radiation. On the facade, the inflated cushions will be mounted on the inside of the structure where necessary, e.g. to provide wind protection. Since all of the facilities – restaurants,suites, enclosed facade. This allows natural ventilation of the stadium which is the most important aspect of the stadium’s sustainable design. 

2 PROVIDE BEST POSSIBLE SPECTOR VIEW FROM ALL DIRECTIONS

Sight lines and spectator Viewing: The almost circular footprint optimizes the viewing and atmosphere by bringing all the  spectators as close to the action as possible.  
The stands are designed without any interruption to evoke the image of bowl. This evenly constructed shape serves to focus attention on the spectators and the events on the field. The human crowd forms the architecture. The facility provides good comfort, excellent views and a superb atmosphere. It will generate crowd excitement and drive athletes to outstanding performances.

INSIDE VIEW OF THE STADIUM


3.COMPLEX STRUCTURAL DESIGN

Since the entire structure is constructed of steel and concrete with a combined weight of around 50,000 tonnes. Hence, computer simulation,synchronized control and structure monitoring techniques were all used to ensure accurate operation,even unloading and timely observations. All these provided for a structure that mutually supported each other and converged into a grid –like formation-almost like a bird's nest with its interwoven twigs. To form a structure largely dominated by large spans and digital screens.


4. EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE

Due to the fact that Beijing is located in an earthquake zone, it was imperative to be able to withstand the earth’s movement. By building the stadium in two separate parts, including a steel lattice structure and a concrete bowl separated by 50ft, the designers were able to create a structure flexible enough to handle considerable seismic activity. The bird’s nest is prepared to withstand an earthquake of up to magnitude 8 on the Richter scale.

     STADIUM DESIGN :


In 2002, the Beijing Municipal Planning Commission held an international competition for the design of the main stadium for the 29th Olympic Games. As the building is intended to house the opening and closing ceremonies, as well as the track and field events, the original competition program included the following main criteria (Beijing, 2002):
A stadium capacity of approximately 100,000 people during the games (to be reduced to approximately 80,000 afterwards), • A retractable roof, • A multi-functional design, to efficiently incorporate a range of uses in the future; and • An emphasis on green building and advanced technology.
After passing through two rounds of adjudication, Herzog and de Meuron’s proposal emerged as the winning entry.
The stadium consists of an inner bowl of concrete seating surrounded by a façade of twisted steel, with a public concourse area sandwiched between the two. The elliptical building footprint is dictated by “the constraints of seating 100,000 people around an athletics track and field”.
Meanwhile, the variation in the height of the stands between the major and minor axes of the ellipse allows for the majority of spectators to be seated along the longest length of the track, and “ensures that all spectators are within the same radius of view from the corners of the field”.
The circular shape of the stadium represents heaven, but has been described as a bird's nest, with its pattern inspired by Chinese-style crazed pottery. A series of cantilevered trusses has been designed to support the roof, shading the seats. While designing the stadium, architects and engineers also ensured comfortable seats and optimum view for all spectators.
In all, the structure encloses a volume approximately 333 meters long by 284 meters wide and 69 meters tall.
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